The physical or surgical removal of tissue. In the case of anal dysplasia, this typically means either electrocautery (hyfrecation) or infrared coagulation(IRC).


Atypical Squamous Cells of Unknown Significance. This result means that cells were found that were not normal, but also not identifiable. This can be caused by dysplasia, but it can also be caused by inflammation or other factors.


Anal dysplasia is a pre-cancerous condition that occurs when the lining of the anal canal undergoes abnormal changes.


A tear in the lining of the anal canal.


An abnormal connection that forms between the anus and the skin or another organ.



Human Papillomavirus.  The most common sexually transmitted virus. It is the cause of nearly all cervical and anal cancers.


High-Resolution Anoscopy. The exam that checks for anal dysplasia. The provider will use a plastic instrument called an anoscope and look at the anal canal with a special microscope called a colposcope. If an abnormal area is seen, then a very small piece of anal tissue may be removed (biopsy) and sent to a specialist (pathologist) to check for signs of cancer.


High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion. A pre-cancerous change to the skin of the anal canal or perianal area. HSIL is not cancer. Only a small fraction of HSIL progresses into cancer.


A lesion is any abnormality in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma. The word "lesion" sometimes brings to mind something like a sore, but anal lesions are often simply abnormalities that can be seen on the surface of the skin of the anus.


Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion. Also known as mild dysplasia. These can be warts or lesions. They aren't considered pre-cancerous, but they can turn to HSIL in time. 


The spread of cancer or other diseases from one organ or part to another not directly connected with it. The new occurrences of disease thus generated are referred to as metastases.


Causing development of cancer or tumors.


Squamous cells are cells that makeup part of the outer layer of skin.